During the months of December 1944 and January 1945, an enormous battle raged in Europe – the well-known German offensive called the Battle of the Bulge. On December 16, 1944, with the Allies believing that the Germans were beat and the war would soon be over, Hitler’s massed armies attacked through the thinly defended Ardennes. The attack caught the Americans manning the eighty-mile stretch of border between Belgium and Germany by surprise. The Germans smashed through the American lines and pushed deep into Belgium and Luxemburg creating a “bulge” in the lines, thus the name given to the battle.
When the Battle of the Bulge is mentioned, many people think of the battle for Bastogne where the Germans had the 101st Airborne surrounded. But the battle was much bigger than that. It involved many divisions across a wide front. On the northern portion of the bulge the 30th Infantry Division stopped the German advance blocking a critical path to Liege and Antwerp.
After Aachen, the 30th Division came off the line and moved back to Holland for a much-needed rest. Then the Germans attacked on December 16th. When the Allied command realized that they were facing a major offensive, the 30th was called back into action. Loaded on trucks the 30th’s three combat regiments reached the front in Belgium on December 18th. The 117th Regiment encountered the enemy first near Stoumont in route to their assignment of Stavelot. The 120th proceeded to Malmedy while the 119th took up positions near Spa, where First Army Headquarters was being hastily dismantled and moved to the rear.
Spa, Malmedy and Stavelot form a rough triangle of roads suitable for an armored force to use in a winter offensive. Stoumont lies further west along the road running through Malmedy and Stavelot. Von Rundstedt planned to use these roads for the main German thrust to Liege where the Allies had huge stores of fuel, ammo and essential supplies. Thus the Germans would split the Allied forces and push on to recapture the port of Antwerp.
During their drive to the front lines, the men of Old Hickory first heard Axis Sally call them the “fanatical 30th Division, Roosevelt’s SS troops.” She also told them they would once again face the 1st SS Panzer Division spearheaded by Lt. Colonel Joachim Peiper. This was the same division they had stopped at Mortain months before.
Knowing roads were essential to the German tanks and trucks in the hilly, forested area, the 30th focused on blocking roads and destroying bridges across the many streams. The 291st Engineers blew up several key bridges early in the offensive essentially stopping Peiper’s advance. Two huge fuel dumps, one close to Stavelot and the other between Stoumont and Spa, could have provided the Germans with much-needed gasoline if captured. While the 30th fought to halt the German advance, supply units began moving the gasoline back out of danger. When elements of Peiper’s force neared the fuel dump near Stavelot, portions of the fuel were set ablaze to prevent their capture.
From December 18th through Christmas eve intense fighting ensued throughout the area assigned to the 30th. They fought bravely with Congressional Medals of Honor earned by Sgt. Frances S. Currey and Staff Sgt. Paul L. Bolden, both of the 120th Regiment. A Presidential Citation was awarded to the 119th Regiment and the attached Company C 740th Tank Battalion and 2nd Platoon Company A 823rd Tank Destroyer Battalion for their battle with the 1st SS at Lorce-Chevron and Stoumont, Belgium.
Despite heavy losses on both sides, the Americans stopped the German advance. The strong resistance along the German’s preferred route to Liege and its supply depots forces Von Rundstedt to shift his focus further south toward the area around Bastogne where resistance was less – except for the stubborn 101st. The unmovable “Old Hickory” Division had blocked their path once again.
Reading accounts of the 30th’s action in those early days of the battle brought to mind scenes from the movie “The Battle of the Bulge” starring Henry Fonda. Although much of the movie is fictional and lacks historical accuracy, it is clear that the action portrayed is mainly in the 30th’s area, including the fuel dumps, the Malmedy massacre, and the intense fighting to block the roadways. The movie might have been better if the makers had included more of the real events. They avoided topics like the Army Air Force bombing our own troops in Malmedy, several times, because the communications was so bad. Another dramatic episode revolved around Americans captured by the Germans, including a major who gathered intelligence before escaping. Some of these prisoners were released when Peiper’s men abandoned their tanks and vehicles. Another dramatic episode would have been the tale of the 740th tank battalion with no tanks who raided a repair depot for anything that would run, taking a hodgepodge of equipment to valiantly fight the enemy.
The end of “The Battle of the Bulge” movie implies that the battle was over when the Germans retreated. This was far from the truth. Veterans of the Battle of the Bulge say that the fighting after Christmas and into January to recapture the ground lost was rougher and the weather worse than those first days stopping the German advance.
I’ve never understood why Hollywood hasn’t made a movie about the 30th. Either the fighting around Mortain or the action in the Malmedy-Stavelot-Stoumont area of Belgium would have made great movies.
Old Hickory played a key role in halting the last great German offensive. Many months of bitter fighting remained before the final surrender in May. The battle hardened troops of the 30th division would go on to take the fight onto German soil once again. Many proudly repeated the nickname given to them by their enemy – “Roosevelt’s SS.” Knowing that the most elite German forces were the SS, it was the highest compliment the enemy could give.
10 thoughts on “30th Infantry Division – Battle of the Bulge”
Thank You for your research….My Dad was at the Battle of the Bulge,120th Infantry Co.F Light MachineGun…Received Purple Heart, wounded Feb 23 1945….Very Proud of Him…
Viet Nam Vet
Great work and research. My Dad was in the Bulge and was awarded a Bronze Star. His name was Robert M. Seibert. He never told anyone what he did to get the medal. The medal he was most proud of was The Combat Infantrymens Badge. Please let me know where to start the research to see if I can find some details on Dad’s actions relating to the Bulge.
Robert, Thanks for visiting my website. The first thing you need to know is the Division or unit your father was in during that time. Was he in the 30 Infantry Division? What Regiment? You can request your father’s records from the National Archives or through the National World War II Museum. I recommend a book called Finding My Father’s War by Jonathan Gawne which explains how to search for information. See my post on this book. Good Luck.
Please help me find a photo of:
Loyd Brown Mc Clain from Shelbyville Tennessee. Dads division liberated The Consentration camp they called them:
Old Hickory! They might of been division 30
It would mean so much to me and my sisters….
916 495 2880
Shirlean Mc Clain
Shirlean, Not sure where to find a photo of your Dad. The 30th Infantry Division was called “Old Hickory” so that would have been the division he was in. Although the 30th did not liberate a concentration camp, they did liberate a train carrying approximately 2500 Jewish people in route from one concentration camp to another. I suggest the National WWII Museum in New Orleans as a source of information. Their website has a form for you to inquire about a specific veteran. Good luck in your search.
Barbara, I read on a U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum site that the 30th liberated Weferlingen, a sub camp of the Buchenwald concentration camp on April 12, 1945. There were 421 prisoners. This was the day before they liberated the transport train.
My Father Louis Rangel, 30th Infantry, 120th Inf Rgt. Spoke of them liberating a concentration camp. I also read a more detailed account, on a Holocaust Memorial Site. When my dad spoke of this, these were the most horrible things he saw during the war.
Thanks for your work! I’m researching and making maps of the 117th Infantry Regiment in which my cousin, Cyril B. Spicer, Jr. served and was cited with five battle ribbons. Until I get my own pages done, see http://darrel-betty-hagberg.com/117th_Infantry_Regiment/117th_Cyril_Spicer.html with whom I’ve shared some of the documents and information I have.
I have an uncle, actually my wife’s uncle, Frank Sabatti whom was killed on Dec 24th, 1944. 30th Div, but right now I would not know much more than that. Apparently they were on the 2nd story of a villa and the tank saw them and shot hurting my Uncle and the stairs . So they had to leave him there and get out, On the next morning they came back and Frank was gone.
My father Louis Rangel was a member of the 120th Infantry Regiment, 30th Inf. Division. Having landed on Omaha Beach and fighting till the war ended. He was so proud of being a member of the 30th. His dying wish was to have his CIB, buried with him. As an Army vet myself I never understood a lot of what he talked about till I became a soldier. Not the combat, but the camaraderie.